By Otmar D. Wiestler, Bernhard Haendler, D. Mumberg
Cancer stem cells have initially been pointed out in leukemia and later in different reliable tumor varieties. they've got very diversified homes from the majority of the tumor as they divide even more slowly and feature very effective drug resistance mechanisms. present remedies may mostly spare melanoma stem cells. This ebook seems at fresh advancements within the box of melanoma stem cells and the prospective effect for the id of novel remedy paradigms for cancer.
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Additional info for Cancer stem cells : novel concepts and prospects for tumor therapy
2004; Korinek et al. 1998; Lai et al. 2003; Machold et al. 2003; Owens and Watt 2003; Pinto et al. 2003; Perez-Losada and Balmain 2003; Polesskaya et al. 2003; Ramalho-Santos et al. 2000; Reya et al. 2003; Zhang and Kalderon 2001). For example, studies of transgenic mice suggest that activation of the Wnt pathway in epidermal stem cells may lead to epithelial cancers (Gat et al. 1998). It was found consistently that gene expression patterns in colon cancer cells and colon stem cells resembled one another (van de Wetering et al.
Moreover, cancer cells expressing Wnt-1 are resistant to therapies that mediate apoptosis (Chen et al. 2001). Overexpression of Wnt-1 has been demonstrated in NSCLC cell lines and primary cancer tissues (He et al. 2004). Blockade of Wnt-1 signaling induces apoptosis in vitro 38 B. M. Jablons and suppresses tumor growth in vivo (He et al. 2004). Similar results were observed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (Rhee et al. 2002), suggesting that Wnt-1 signaling is a key mediator of apoptosis in epithelial cancers.
It was found consistently that gene expression patterns in colon cancer cells and colon stem cells resembled one another (van de Wetering et al. 2002). Other evidence points as well to Wnt pathway involvement in stem cell development. Treatment of isolated HSCs with Wnt proteins in vitro increases their proliferative capacity and improves their ability to form colonies, both in vitro and in vivo (Reya et al. 2003). While inhibiting Wnt pathway activation in the intestine fails to prevent the development, initially, of normal epithelial architecture, its inactivation eventually results in a progressive degradation of epithelial structure.