By Leonardo da Vinci.
В 1966 году в Национальной библиотеке в Мадриде были обнаружены два манускрипта, написанные Леонардо. Когда-то они не были учтены при каталогизации, и об их существовании не было известно. Этим двум манускриптам дали условные названия «Мадридский кодекс I» и «Мадридский кодекс II». «Мадридский кодекс I» состоит из 192 листов 1490—1499 годов написания, содержащих изображения различных механизмов и изложения теории механики. Хотя работа и посвящена механике, в ней есть заметки по астрономии и по оптике.
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The pendant was ﬁnally ﬁnished by perforation, usually through or around the ears or neck, although the eye was occasionally used (Buisson et al. 1996). The contours découpés were thus produced by a fairly straightforward set of technical actions: sawing, incising and smoothing, with the ﬁnal perforation probably the most diﬃcult part of the process. No single contour découpé was identical in appearance. The extensive analysis undertaken by Buisson et al. (1996) failed to distinguish stylistic groupings.
These are small, ranging in size from 2 to 12 millimetres with an average size of 6 millimetres (White 2007). The size and uniformity of these beads, too small to be individually visible, suggests they were grouped together in numbers, and probably sewn onto clothing. The context of many beads recovered from Palaeolithic sites suggests they were worn on everyday clothing and lost during routine activities (Scheer 1995; Taborin 2004). All the Castlemerle sites appear to have been important foci for bead production.
In general, though, the period was cold and the landscape was covered by open, steppic vegetation. This was interspersed with short-lived warmer pulses and a short warm phase (GS-2b) saw the appearance of some trees, mainly birch and pine, before cold conditions returned (Gamble et al. 2004, 2005). These changes aﬀected the abundance of diﬀerent animals in the landscape; however, throughout the period, horse, reindeer and bovids were the most common species preyed upon, with smaller numbers of red deer, saiga, chamois and birds.