By Gloria Soberón-Chávez
Biosurfactants, tensio-active compounds produced by means of residing cells, are actually gaining expanding curiosity because of their strength purposes in lots of various commercial components within which to this point nearly completely man made surfactants were used. Their precise constructions and features are only growing preferred. furthermore, biosurfactants are thought of to be environmentally “friendly,” particularly non-toxic and biodegradable. This Microbiology Monographs quantity offers with the latest advances within the box of microbial biosurfactants, similar to rhamnolipids, serrawettins, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids, sophorolipids, surfactin and different lipopeptides. each one bankruptcy studies the features of a person biosurfactant together with the physicochemical homes, the chemical constructions, the position within the body structure of the manufacturing microbes, the biosynthetic pathways, the genetic legislation, and the aptitude biotechnological applications.
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Extra resources for Biosurfactants: From Genes to Applications
Aeruginosa carries a distinct quorum sensing system composed of the transcriptional regulator MvfR (PqsR), which directs the biosynthesis of HAQs (De´ziel et al. 2004; Gallagher et al. 2002; Pesci et al. 1999) and the activation of many quorum sensing-controlled genes via PqsE (De´ziel et al. 2005; Diggle et al. 2003; Farrow et al. 2008). Among Rhamnolipids: Detection, Analysis, Biosynthesis, Genetic Regulation 31 the HAQs, HHQ and PQS act as inducing ligands of MvfR regulator (Xiao et al. 2006).
2005; De´ziel et al. 2004). These reactions are catalyzed by the pqsABCD and pqsH gene products (Dubern and Diggle 2008). Bredenbruch et al. (2005) suggested that the b-ketoacyl reductase RhlG plays a role, although an intact rhlG gene is not required for the production of HAQs. A more detailed description of the biosynthetic pathway of HAQs was recently described (Gross and Loper 2009). 2 Biosynthesis of Rhamnolipids-Rhamnose Moiety Rhamnose is a component of the cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS) core and of several O-antigen polysaccharides in a variety of gram-negative bacteria, including several strains of Pseudomonas (Burger et al.
Aeruginosa (Sobero´n-Cha´vez et al. 2005): (1) RhlA is involved in the synthesis of the HAAs, the fatty acid dimers, from two 3-hydroxyfatty acid precursors (De´ziel et al. 2003; Le´pine et al. 2002; Zhu and Rock 2008); (2) the membrane-bound RhlB rhamnosyltransferase uses dTDP-L-rhamnose and an HAA molecule as precursors, yielding mono-RL; (3) these mono-RLs are in turn the substrates, together with dTDP-L-rhamnose, of the RhlC rhamnosyltransferase to produce di-RLs. Unfortunately, few works have characterized these three enzymes (Fig.