By Owen Chadwick
May possibly a Pope ever consent to be the topic of a political strength? Chadwick offers an research of the motives and results of the top of the old Papal nation, and the mental pressures upon previous Rome because it got here lower than assault from the Italian Risorgimento; and never merely from Italy, yet from liberal routine in Germany, France, Spain, and Portugal, in addition to Tsarist Russia because it oppressed its Polish topics. If a united Italy was once to be completed, the country must disappear. those pressures brought on Popes to withstand "the global" instead of to attempt to persuade it, to make the Vatican extra of a sanctuary in the back of excessive partitions, and to evangelise the extra otherworldly elements of Catholic religion. while they met new ethical calls for: the rights of the laborer in undefined, divorce, and toleration--which they can confront as the Revolution had destroyed the powers of the Catholic kings over their church buildings. therefore, Chadwick issues out, Catholic authority can be way more centralized in Rome.
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Extra resources for A History of the Popes 1830-1914 (Oxford History of the Christian Church)
Lamennais and Montalembert believed that the Russian did all that he could, which was likely, because Lamennais abused the Russian government and backed the revolution in Poland. But there is no firm evidence of such Russian pressure on Gregory XVI; and if it happened it must have weighed lightly in comparison with the nagging of Metternich, without whom the Pope was not safe in Rome. The portrait of Lamennais sent to the Pope by the French nuncio and the deputy was not ill-considered: here is a devoted and prayerful priest.
The destruction of public order . '10 This tone of 10 Mirari vos, in A. M. ), Ada Gregorii Papae XVI (Rome, 1901), i. 170. 24 Gregory XVI lament had roots in the curial tradition. But the new music of tragedy became characteristic of the Roman organization as it contemplated the ways in which Europe developed its politics, its civilization, and its opinions. It may have been the way to help a supportive party to form, but it was not the way to persuade the world. One tradition in Catholic (and equally in Protestant) thought had always understood the doctrine of power in an authoritarian sense.
If this were true, the doctrine 'the voice of the people is the voice of God' is not a Christian doctrine. But a long tradition of Catholic (and Protestant, especially Calvinist) thought had allowed that the idea of the voice of the people being the voice of God had truth. The law of God is in part natural law, the principles of justice; and natural law is known because it is found in the general mind or conscience of humanity. After the French Revolution the authoritarian looked more Christian than the popular interpretation.