By Maurice Dobb
A examine of capitalism and the way it got here into being.
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Extra info for Capitalism Yesterday and Today
Venezuela is often cited as an outstanding example of this; also oil countries of the Middle East). g. in the 'twenties and since 1945). One estimate shows that of American foreign investment in the three post-war years, 1947-9, more than nine- tenths was direct business investment and nearly four- fifths was in colonial or semi-colonial countries; yet of the latter as much as nine-tenths was in oil. org/access_use#pd-google To return to the effect which the development of monopoly capitalism has on the home country, stand- ing at the metropolis of empire: how is one to sum- marise the general effect these developments have had on Capitalism as an economic system?
These foreign issues were largely government or gov- ernment-sponsored loans; and although creditors like Rothschilds doubtless imposed conditions upon the bor- rowers, such loans did not involve direct exploitation and control. British capital participated largely in the 49 financing of railway development both in Europe and America during the mid-19th century. What gave export of capital in the new epoch of imperialism a qualitative difference was that it increasingly took the form of di- rect business investment in mining and plantations, pub- lic utilities and later manufacturing concerns.
With more rapid capital accumulation and the revolu- tionising of technique that went with it, the process of concentration of which we have several times spoken was carried an important stage further. This was concen- tration at two levels. Firstly, it was concentration at the level of the production-unit. With more complex me- chanical technique, carrying with it a more complex di- vision of labour and separation of distinct processes and stages within the factory, came the economic necessity for larger production-units.