By Annie Davis
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Extra resources for Animal World
Approximately 100% selectivity and current efﬁciency at a low cell voltage  is better than reported for Bu4 NBF4 as supporting electrolyte . 3 Cell Separators As discussed in Sect. 3, the in principle desirable application of an undivided cell will be impossible if a reaction at the counter electrode results in unacceptable consequences, for example, impurities of the product and/or considerable losses in yield and current efﬁciency. There is a large variety of cell separators available, but none of them can work ideally.
A potentiostat is relatively expensive, especially if high power is needed. 3 Control input Potentiostat Direct current source mA Luggin capillary Diaphragm Counter electrode RE Reference electrode mV Working electrode 36 Scheme of potentiostatic operation for a preparative electrolysis, using in principle a simpliﬁed cyclovoltammetry equipment. The potential of the working electrode is measured by a Luggin capillary, coupled with a reference electrode (RE, see Sect. 6). The control circuit in the potentiostat adjusts the cell current until the potential of the working electrode is equal to the voltage at the control input.
But here the potentiostatic operation also cannot demonstrate its advantages, and probably the simpler galvanostatic operation may be applied. To ﬁnd relatively suitable operation conditions, an experimental optimization of the current density should be carried out, perhaps including parameters such as concentrations of reactants and products, degree of conversion, temperature, and so on. Operation with Constant Electrode Potential (Potentiostatic Operation) As discussed in Sect. 1, electroorganic reactions can often be selectively controlled by a constant potential of the working electrode, even at decreasing reactant concentrations (see Fig.