By Inigo Gutierrez, Juan Meléndez, Erik Hernández
Varactors are passive semiconductor units utilized in digital circuits, as a voltage-controlled method of storing power as a way to enhance the volume of electrical cost produced. some time past, using inexpensive fabrication procedures corresponding to complementary steel oxide semiconductor (CMOS) and silicon germanium (SiGe) have been stored for built-in circuits operating in frequency levels lower than the GHz. Now, the elevated operating frequency of radio frequency built-in circuits (RF ICs) for communique units, and the fashion of system-on-chip expertise, has driven the necessities of varactors to the restrict. because the frequency of RF purposes maintains to upward thrust, it really is crucial that passive units corresponding to varactors are of optimal caliber, making this a severe layout factor.
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Additional resources for Design and Characterization of Integrated Varactors for RF Applications
It causes: parasitic capacitance in the N well; ohmic losses in the N well due to its resistivity. 5 Electrical and magnetic phenomena in an NMOS varactor in accumulation mode. 36 MOS VARACTORS E4(t) electric ﬁeld between the accumulation zone and the source/drain: it causes: ohmic losses in the source and the drain. E5(t) electric ﬁeld in the source and drain contacts: this appears as a result of the distribution of voltages in the source and drain contacts. It causes: ohmic loss due to the resistivity of Nþ diffusions and metal contacts.
19 Simpliﬁed model of the capacitances of an NMOS accumulation varactor. the metal connection tracks, there is a reduction in the parasitic capacitances (Cp). 19 gives an approximate model of the capacitances in an NMOS varactor. When the varactor works in the accumulation zone, CSi is negligible in comparison with the capacitance of the oxide. Therefore the total capacitance will be: C ¼ Cox þ Cp : ð3:5Þ When the gate size is increased, Cp is reduced and Cox is increased. Therefore, the parasitic capacitance is neglegible.
E3(t) electric ﬁeld in the depletion zone: this appears as a result of the voltage difference between the gate oxide and the N well. It causes: capacitance in the charge depletion zone under the gate. E4(t) electric ﬁeld between the depletion zone and the source/drain terminal: this causes: parasitic capacitance between the depletion zone and the Nþdiffusions. E5(t) electric ﬁeld in the source and drain contacts: this appears as a result of the distribution of voltages in the source and drain contacts.