By Vek Lewis (auth.)
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Additional resources for Crossing Sex and Gender in Latin America
She opts for philosopher Max Black’s interactionist view of metaphor, which sees that “metaphor connects two subjects, one principal and one subsidiary . . ’ This phrase refers to all associations invoked by a particular term, regardless of whether they are true. Black maintains that a principal subject is constituted through the metaphorical function of a subsidiary subject and its corresponding field of reference” (2000, 97). The key here is that metaphor does not contain two subjects that are inherently alike; the two terms are made analogous by their being placed together and by the meanings derived from the connotative field, often based on other representations.
Instead, it serves to remind critical and cultural scholars to extend their views of the possibilities of loca, travesti, and transsexual figures in contemporary texts beyond performative or allegorizing paradigms that cannot account for subjectivity and its articulation and that themselves do not break away from the dominant episteme that locates locas, travestis, and transsexuals in certain paradigmatic ways. A view that gives countenance to sex- and gender-variant subjects in culture allows the critic to reposition depictions in relation to what is known and knowable among 42 Crossing Sex and Gender in Latin America competing knowledges about these subjects in different locations and times, their degrees of social integration, and forms of identification and self-concepts, aspects completely lacking, as we have seen, in queerinspired accounts in much of the work previously discussed.
In other places, it is linked more to their vision of more closely inhabiting the feminine gender with which the subjects have always identified (Kulick 1998, Prieur 1998, Fernández 2004). In Prieur’s and Josefina Fernández’s studies, respondents claim to have always been locas or travestis and that only in later years were they able to fully become that vision of themselves. The work of Chilean psychologist, Claudia Espinoza Carramiñana (1999), draws a similar trajectory of travesti embodiment and calls the process “forjarse mariposa,” that is, one’s emergence from one form into another, more wondrous creation.