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Therefore, Nb-Al, silicide and/or composite coatings with Al + Cr, Al + Si, produced through chromizing and siliconizing processes have also been actively developed through pack cementation, liquid-phase processes and PVD + vacuum diffusion treatment [594-613]. These processes could improve the oxidation resistance of TiAl; however, the long-term stability is still a concern though the inward diffusion of Al could be partially inhibited by modification of coating structures by incorporating other elements.
Their results also showed that when Si addition exceeded the solubility limit of Si in α2 phase, Ti5Si3 was introduced. At low temperature (< 800oC), the reported oxidation resistance of Ti5Si3 was really good. However, the Ti5Si3 formed was always in discontinuous distribution, so a continuous SiO2 layer seems to be impossible for Si-containing alloys, and actually was not revealed by experimental observations . The combined addition of Nb and Si is more effective for improving the high temperature oxidation resistance of Ti3Al-base alloys than alloying alone.
Contrary to that on Ti3Al alloys, the effect of nitrogen on the oxidation of TiAl appears to be detrimental due to the 28 Zhengwei Li and Wei Gao formation of intermixed TiN (or Ti2AlN) and Al2O3 at the metal/scale interface, even in the initial oxidation stage, retarding the formation of continuous Al2O3 scale with high protectiveness [453, 456-460]. Several mechanisms have been postulated : (1) Nitrogen doping of an initial TiO2 scale results in more rapid oxygen transportation to the interface between oxide scale and Al-depleted zone; (2) The grain boundary diffusion of nitrogen through the oxide leads to the formation of AlN or possibly AlON at the interface between oxide scale and Al-depleted zone; and (3) Nitrogen grain boundary diffusion through the oxide scale to the interface between oxide scale and Al-depleted zone, consequently, stabilizes the Al-depleted zone with relatively low Al activity, thus, promotes the growth of TiO2 scale with a high growth rate and poor protectiveness.