By Joseph Neisendorfer
The main glossy and thorough therapy of volatile homotopy concept to be had. the point of interest is on these tools from algebraic topology that are wanted within the presentation of effects, confirmed by way of Cohen, Moore, and the writer, at the exponents of homotopy teams. the writer introduces numerous features of risky homotopy conception, together with: homotopy teams with coefficients; localization and final touch; the Hopf invariants of Hilton, James, and Toda; Samelson items; homotopy Bockstein spectral sequences; graded Lie algebras; differential homological algebra; and the exponent theorems in regards to the homotopy teams of spheres and Moore areas. This publication is acceptable for a path in volatile homotopy concept, following a primary path in homotopy concept. it's also a worthy reference for either specialists and graduate scholars wishing to go into the sphere.
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Extra resources for Algebraic Methods in Unstable Homotopy Theory
We use the usual argument to show that the mod k Hurewicz isomorphism theorem for spaces implies a similar mod k isomorphism theorem for pairs of spaces. 1 Basic definition In order to relate integral homology and integral cohomology, it is convenient to introduce the following two distinct notions of duality. 1. (A) If F is a finitel generated torsion free abelian group, let F ∗ = Hom(F, Z). (B) If T is a finit abelian group, let T ∗ = Hom(T, Q/Z). Thus, Z∗ ∼ = Z generated by the identity map 1Z : Z → Z and (Z/kZ)∗ ∼ = Z/kZ generated by the map which sends 1 to 1/k.
This completes the inductive step in the proof. Hence the mod k Hurewicz theorem is true for all the Postnikov stages Em , . Since X = limm →∞ Em , is an inverse limit which is finit in each degree, it follows that the mod k Hurewicz theorem is true for all X. Exercise (1) Suppose k and are positive integers. Suppose either that X is simply connected or that X is a connected H-space. Show that ϕ : πj (X; Z/kZ) → Hj (X; Z/kZ) is an isomorphism for all 1 ≤ j < and an epimorphism for j = if and only if the same is true for ϕ : πj (X; Z/kr Z) → Hj (X; Z/kr Z) where r is a fi ed positive integer.
Let X be a nilpotent space with abelian fundamental group and let n ≥ 1. Suppose πi (X; Z/kZ) = 0 for all 1 ≤ i ≤ n − 1. Then the mod k Hurewicz homomorphism ϕ : πi (X; Z/kZ) → Hi (X; Z/kZ) is: (a) an isomorphism for all 1 ≤ i ≤ n. (b) an epimorphism for i = n + 1 if n ≥ 2. (c) an isomorphism for i = n + 1 and an epimorphism for i = n + 2 if n ≥ 3 and k is odd. Proof: The strategy of this proof is as follows: (1) First, for all n ≥ 1, show that it is true for Eilenberg–MacLane spaces. (2) Second, for all n ≥ 1, show that it is true for a general space by considering its Postnikov system.