By Martin Ingrouille (auth.)
Diversity and Evolution of Land crops offers a clean and lengthy past due therapy of plant anatomy and morphology for the biology undergraduate of this day. environment apart the normal plod in the course of the plant taxa, the writer adopts a problem-based practical strategy, exploring plant range as a sequence of alternative recommendations to the layout difficulties dealing with flowers on land.
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Additional resources for Diversity and Evolution of Land Plants
It is possible to derive a great diversity of forms of shoot systems from a number of simple rules for the timing of the production, development and rate of extension of the basic leaf-stem metamer, and the subsequent development of the axillary buds. Similar vegetative metamers may behave slightly differently becoming either a vertical or horizontal axis. A vertical axis, which is also called an orthotropic axis, has an essentially radial symmetry. The horizontal, or plagiotropic axis, is normally dorsiventrally flattened (Fig.
The secondary cell wall is produced inside the primary wall, after the cell has elongated or enlarged. It makes the cell elastic, allowing it to deform, but returning to its original shape af~er the stress is removed. The fibrils are regularly arranged: in parallel to each ()ther, mainly longitudinal to the main axis, and in a weave with alternating layers at different angles. The more acute the mean angle of the fibrils to the main axis of the cell the greater the stiffness of the cell. Hemp fibres, with a mean fibril angle of 3°, are four times as stiff as cotton trichomes with a mean angle of over 30° (Vincent, 1982).
One species which grows as a hedgehog plant is called Smilax aspera (Fig. 7). In sheltered and shady circumstances it normally grows as a climber, and there is a great deal of variation in leaf size and shape depending upon the degree of exposure of the leaf. As a hedgehog plant, it almost lacks leaves. It is not clear how far the steppe variant and the woodland variant differ genetically but there is a large measure of plasticity in the growth of both forms though they may be genetically different and are recognized as different taxa.