By Christopher P. I. Mahonge
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Additional resources for Co-Managing Complex Social-Ecological Systems in Tanzania: The Case of Lake Jipe Wetland
In the coming section, the influence of heterogeneity in the collaborative management of natural resources involving governmental and community institutions and actors is analysed. 4 Heterogeneity Although heterogeneity is a term with many meanings based on the context, in the present thesis it implies the existence of multiple and diverse user groups, either permanently or on a seasonal basis in a given area, with the aim of exploiting natural resources. The main dimensions referred to here are ethnicity and interactions between resident and non-resident resource users, as these seem most relevant for the Lake Jipe case study.
Pomeroy et al. (2001) assert that the existence of property rights alone is not sufficient to enforce the sustainable use of natural resources. Whereas property rights should clearly provide for mechanisms (administrative, economic, and collective) and structures for the allocation of property rights to optimise their use while conserving resources, there should also be a legal mechanism for enforcing rights (Pomeroy, 1995; Pomeroy & Berkes, 1997). These scholars posit that the government should be legally able to support the enforcement of property rights to ensure, for example, that local people have the power to control the unsustainable use of natural resources by outside pressures.
The ability, capacity and willingness of different ethnic groups may affect natural resource management arrangements, either positively or negatively. The existence of multiple diverse 42 Co-managing complex social-ecological systems in Tanzania ethnic groups characterised by different values, expectations, aspirations, and interests as relate to natural resources may result in conflicts among them (Armitage, Marschke, & Plummer, 2008). On the other hand, cultural diversity, differences in perception and understanding, and reciprocal relationships imply the existence of diverse solutions to problems of constraints.