By Sihem Tebbani, Rayen Filali, Filipa Lopes, Didier Dumur, Dominique Pareau
Due to the results of globa l warming and critical greenhouse gasoline emissions, a number of rules were studied to minimize those emissions or to signify solut ions for pollutant remov al. the main promising rules are diminished intake, waste restoration and waste therapy by way of organic structures. during this latter type, stories have tested that using microalgae is a truly promising answer for the biofixation of carbon dioxide. in reality, those micro-organisms may be able to offset excessive degrees of CO2 because of photosynthesis. Microalgae also are utilized in numerous fields (food undefined, fertilizers, biofuel, etc.). to acquire a n optimum C O2 sequestration us ing micr oal gae, their cul tivatio n needs to be c arried ou t in a f avorable e nvironment, similar to optimum working stipulations (temperature, meals, pH, mild, etc.). consequently, microalgae are grown in an enclosure, i.e. photobioreactors, which particularly function in non-stop mode. this kind of closed reactor particularly allows us to lessen tradition illness, to enhance CO2 move and to raised regulate the cultivation method. This final element comprises the law of concentrations (biomass, substrate or derivative) as well as traditional rules (pH, temperature).
To do that, we need to identify a version of the process and to spot its parameters; to install position estimators that allows you to rebuild variables that aren't measured on-line (software sensor); and eventually to enforce a keep watch over legislation, that allows you to preserve the process in optimum stipulations regardless of modeling blunders and environmental disturbances which may have a power at the method (pH diversifications, temperature, gentle, biofilm visual appeal, etc.).
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Additional info for CO2 Biofixation by Microalgae: Automation Process
This may be due to the reduction of the activity of enzyme RuBisCO, responsible for CO2 fixation [SOB 00]. Algae species can demonstrate a preference for one of the forms of carbon (CO2 or HCO-3 ) depending on the biological mechanism of concentration of CO2. Generally, microalgae prefer CO2 as a source of inorganic carbon [CAR 06]. 2. Nitrogen Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for algae growth. Nitrogen content in microalgae is around 7% of the algal dry matter. The nitrogen source of the culture may be organic (urea) or inorganic (nitrate NO3−, ammonium NH4+) [ALC 10].
The nitrogen source of the culture may be organic (urea) or inorganic (nitrate NO3−, ammonium NH4+) [ALC 10]. Nitrogen is involved in the major metabolic pathways of microalgae. Therefore, an increase in the concentration of nitrogen, up to a certain limit value, leads to greater cellular and protein productivity and more significant chlorophyll synthesis. A deficiency of this element induces a significant accumulation of lipid reserves (polyunsaturated fatty acids) [CHE 11a] and a limitation of photosynthetic and cellular activities [ALC 10].
In this case, growth is determined as a function of the incident light intensity. More accurate models are also proposed in the literature to describe the light gradient with culture depth [FOU 09, SUH 03, BER 11]. It should be noted, moreover, that these models assume that incident light intensity is constant or with slight variations. There is little research about modeling periodic Bioprocess Modeling 41 light in the literature [BER 11]. However, it is important to consider this periodic fluctuating light in the future, especially when considering CO2 biofixation from industrial flue gases with microalgae outdoor cultures.