By Gwynn P. Ellis, Ian M. Lockhart
Execs within the box comprehensively summarize all of the literature that relates to recognized contributors of those sessions of compounds. an in depth topic index and complete tables of all well-known compounds let effortless place of information.
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Extra resources for Chromans and Tocopherols
6 Identify the Lewis acid and Lewis base in each of the following reactions. (a) (CH3)2Ο + HI (b) CH3 CΗ2+ (c) CH3 CH (d) CH3 C (CH3)2ΟΗ+ + H2O CH2 CH CH3 + HBr + CH3NH− + I− OH2+ CΗ2 (CH3)2CΗ+ CH3 C + Br− C− + CH3NH2 Answers: (a) (CH3)2O is the Lewis base; HI is the Lewis acid. (b) CH3—CH2+ is the Lewis acid; H2O is the Lewis base. (c) CH3—CHCH2 is the Lewis base; HBr is the Lewis acid. (d) CH3—CCH is the Lewis acid; CH3N– is the Lewis base. 7 Write the equilibrium constant expression for the reaction of ethanal and methanol to give an acetal.
The magnitude of the standard enthalpy change for a reaction depends only on the difference in enthalpy between the products and reactants. 7 Bond Dissociation Energies The bond dissociation energy is the energy required—an endothermic process—to break a bond and form two atomic or molecular fragments, each with one electron of the original shared pair. Thus, a very stable bond has a large bond dissociation energy—more energy must be added to cleave the bond. A high bond dissociation energy means that the bond (and molecule) is of low energy and stable.
Write the Lewis structure for this species. What features of the chlorine atoms might stabilize this carbene compared to CH2? Answer: The dichlorocarbene is electron deficient; there are only four bonding electrons and a lone pair of electrons about the carbon atom. However, either of the chlorine atoms can share one of its lone pairs of electrons in contributing resonance forms. The delocalization of electrons makes CCl2 more stable than CH2. 44 Draw the Lewis structure of OH+. (a) How does it differ from OH–?