By Truman Schwartz
Chemistry: mind's eye and Implication [Jun 01, 1973] Schwartz, Truman
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Extra info for Chemistry. Imagination and Implication
But the idea that matter is composed of miniature billiard balls can account for much more than the properties of gases. Dalton realized the chemical implications of atomism and, in " A New System of Chemical Philosophy" (1808), he published the first full exposition of his theory and its application to chemical combinat i o n . " T h e ultimate particles of all homogeneous bodies," he w r o t e , "are perfectly alike in weight, figure, &c. In other words, every particle of water is like every other particle of water, every particle of hydrogen is like every other particle of hydrogen, &c.
As we have seen, this conclusion is in harmony with Avogadro's arguments. Returning now to oxide A, we see that our atomic weights per- 48 Chapter 3 mit the prediction of the atomic ratio characteristic of the compound. 0 for oxygen suggest that each molecule or A consists of two atoms of nitrogen and one of oxygen. Thus, its formula would be N 2 0. And, because nitrogen and oxygen are both made up of diatomic molecules, the equation for the direct formation of oxide A from its constituent elements could be written 2N2 + 0 2 -* 2N 2 0.
A number of careful and competent men devoted themselves to decomposing compounds and determining the mass ratios of the constituent elements. The aim was to discover whether or not a pair of elements could c o m bine in only a single fixed mass ratio, in several ratios, or in an indefinite range of proportions. Again, the answer was not an obvious one. And even after much of the evidence was in, some of those careful and competent chemists differed in their conclusions. " You will see why in Chapter 16.