By Tony Guenault
The writer describes superfluidity because the jewel within the crown of low temperature physics. At low adequate temperatures, each substance in thermal equilibrium needs to turn into ordered. when you consider that a few fabrics stay fluid to the bottom temperatures, it's a attention-grabbing query as to how this ordering can ensue. The e-book assumes a few easy wisdom of quantum, statistical and thermal physics, and builds in this heritage to provide a readable advent to the 3 superfluids of low temperature physics. The publication emphasizes actual ideas instead of technical element, with the purpose of introducing the topic in an available but authoritative approach to ultimate yr undergraduates or beginning graduate scholars.
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Additional info for Basic superfluids
1 Zero circulation? The identification of phase gradient with superfluid velocity has an immediate consequence. This concerns the “circulation” of the fluid. dl where dl is a vector element along the length of the path. 2 we can see that the circulation simply takes the value of ($/m4) times the phase difference around the loop. 10A). 1 to make physical sense, the phase difference around a loop must be zero or an integral number of 2π – wave functions around loops must eat their tails to be single valued and thus physical.
The obvious, and as it turns out, the correct identification is to write the momentum p simply as m4 vS. r . 3) Hence we see that the superfluid velocity is directly related to the gradient of the superfluid wave function. As an aside here, let us remark that this expression can be derived much more rigorously using the appropriate quantum mechanical current operator. It is then clear that we have neglected the influence of any rapid change in Ψ arising from a change in C or equivalently ρS, but this neglect is valid for most situations.
B. P. Finn, Thermal Physics, Nelson Thornes, 1993. R. H. Dittman and M. W. Zemansky, Heat and Thermodynamics, McGraw Hill, 1997 (or earlier editions). F. Mandl, Statistical Physics, Wiley, 1988. Material for investigating the history and background of the subject includes: K. Mendelssohn, The Quest for Absolute Zero, Taylor and Francis, out of print but an interesting read if available at your library. html] gives a useful resource about Nobel prizes in Physics. Royal Holloway (University of London) have introductory low temperature material produced under a Partnership for Publication Awareness project.