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Additional info for Application of Time-Synchronized Measurements in Power System Transmission Networks
Three phasors for the voltages at each bus, or three phasors for the current at a circuit. The PMUs may be also set up to provide only the positive sequence quantities, or all phase quantities. To assess the impact of measurements on the performance of the state estimator, a numerical experiment was performed as follows: Only the phase A measurements were used (both voltages and currents). 8 QSE 53 Fig. 16 3D rendering of the voltage magnitude and phase angle residuals of phase A voltages— only phase A measurements were used in the state estimator observability, pseudo measurements were introduced for the other phases by simply taking the phase A measurements and applying a 120- and 240-degree phase shift for the phases B and C, respectively.
Local analog and status quantities, such as voltage magnitude, real and reactive power flows, loads, and status of breakers (open/close) are measured and transmitted to a central location. The measurements are simple, requiring simple instrumentation. Typical analog measurements are: (a) voltage magnitudes, (b) real and reactive power flows, and (c) current magnitude measurements. 1 Partial list of computational and control functions Data acquisition and Energy management (AGC) Security monitoring and control processing Contingency selection Automatic generation control SCADA Contingency analysis Economic dispatch Network topology Voltage stability assessment Optimal power flow State estimation Dynamic stability assessment Unit commitment Visualization Security controls Load forecast Wind/PV forecast Interchange evaluation Locational marginal prices PV photovoltaic, SCADA supervisory control and data acquisition, AGC automatic generation control angles as well.
The DSE (time-domain) models both electrical and electromechanical dynamics. The focus of this book is on the QSE implementation. A brief description of the object-oriented approach for QSE is described next. 1 General Description The distributed QSE uses data from relays, PMUs, and other IEDs in the substation along with a detailed substation model to generate the local state estimate. The substation model is three-phase, breaker-oriented, and an instrumentation inclusive model. The measurement data at the substation are provided by all IEDs (relays, digital fault recorders, PMUs, digital meters) and they are numerous.