By Ann Brooks
‘Consumption, towns and States’ examines the attention-grabbing intersection of intake, citizenship and the kingdom in a cross-section of world towns in Asia and the West. It makes a speciality of a few theoretical and empirical analyses: constructing and amplifying the intersection of intake, citizenship and the country in overdue modernity when it comes to more than a few towns; reading the concept that of the worldwide urban as an ‘aspirational’ classification for towns in Asia and the West; and contemplating case reviews which spotlight the intersection of intake and the country. As Ann Brooks and Lionel Wee display, the interface among citizen prestige and client task proves an important element of study within the mild of the neoliberal statement that folks and associations practice at their most sensible inside of a unfastened marketplace economy.
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Additional info for Consumption, Cities and States: Comparing Singapore with Asian and Western Cities
The emphasis on choice also makes it a rational strategy for the consumer to avoid being overly committed to a particular commodity or identity since this might preclude future choices. As Bauman (1998, 28) puts it: ‘Identities, just like consumer goods, are to be appropriated and possessed, but only in order to be consumed, and so to disappear again. ’ Bauman thus argues that the capacity for reflexivity is directly related to the capacity for choice: ‘All of us are doomed to the life of choices, but not all of us have the means to be choosers’ (86).
An organization is then isomorphic with its institutional environment to the extent that it represents specific institutions (a school or a religious group). However, our decision to speak of ‘institution’ and hence ‘institutional reflexivity’ rather than ‘organization’ and ‘organizational reflexivity’ in this book is also due in no small part to the fact that we are focusing on the state and the various related state apparatus. And the state is more commonly described as an institution (Fisiy 1995; Skocpol 2003) than an organization because it (qua political entity) is usually distinguished from other institutions such as civil society and the public sphere.
This interchangeability of terms arises and is to some extent justified because of the influence of ‘institutional myths’ on organizational structure, which can lead to a point where organizations might even become isomorphic with their institutional environments (DiMaggio and Powell 1983; see also Lewin, Weigelt and Emery 2004, 134). This is perhaps one reason why organizations are sometimes also described as institutions. Strictly speaking, though, a distinction between the two could be made in that institutions are essentially social norms that are entrenched to varying degrees.