By Bernhard Blanke, Randall Smith
This quantity explores a number of present difficulties confronted via towns in Germany and England whereas reflecting on positive concepts for boosting the standard of existence for the electorate of twenty-first century city environments. The chapters of the ebook are in line with papers given at a symposium prepared by means of the schools of Bristol and Hannover in 1997 to have fun the fiftieth anniversary of twinning among the 2 towns.
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Additional resources for Cities in Transition New Challenges, New Responsibilities
Bradbury and J. Mawson (eds), British Regionalism and Devolution (London: Jessica Kingsley, 1997). City Region Campaign, Building a New Britain: an Alternative Democratic Vision for the United Kingdom and its Constitution (London: The City Region Campaign, 1996). R. Clements, Local Notables and the City Council (London: Macmillan, 1969). The Constitution Unit, Regional Government in England (London: The Constitution Unit, 1996). M. Coombes, ‘Deﬁnition of city regions in the United Kingdom’, Appendix to Building a New Britain: an Alternative Democratic Vision for the United Kingdom and its Constitution (London: The City Region Campaign, 1996).
In the northern part of the region, good communications have brought massive population and housing expansion, along the northern edge of Bristol in particular. The West of England hovers between peripherality and centrality. In European terms South West England lies within the newly deﬁned Atlantic Arc Region, deﬁned by the European Commission as being largely peripheral, ‘having a weak and unbalanced urban system, and with its productive sectors in decline’ (European Commission, 1995). By contrast Bristol – one of the major cities along the Atlantic Rim – is close to the edge of the Central Cities Region triangulated by London, Paris and Brussels, a region of high potential and spatial concentration.
Stewart and J. Underwood, ‘Inner cities policy’, in K. Young and C. Mason (eds), Urban Economic Development (London: Macmillan, 1984). ), such links are particularly precarious in the UK because they primarily constitute strategic ‘risk avoidance partnerships’. Consequently he considers ‘a uniﬁed regional administration illusory’. As Stewart suggests, the main reasons for problems encountered with cooperation in England are: ● ● ● ● the absence of a democratically elected regional tier of government, of a tradition of regional policy formulation and even of regional identities; the political system characterized by sectoralization and centralization while a territorial dimension of policy-making has no tradition; territorial elements of national government policies which are too heterogeneous and particularistic to form the core of regional cooperation; the abolition by central government of new forms of regional cooperation initiatives under the Thatcher government.