By Stelio Cro
Stelio Cro’s revealing paintings, coming up from his greater than part dozen prior books, considers the eighteenth-century Enlightenment within the context of the eu adventure with, and response to, the cultures of America’s unique population. considering Spanish, Italian, French, and English resources, the writer describes how the construction fabrics for Rousseau’s allegory of the Noble Savage got here from the early Spanish chroniclers of the invention and conquest of the United States, the Jesuit kin of the Paraguay Missions (a Utopia in its personal right), the Essais of Montaigne, Italian Humanism, Shakespeare’s Tempest, writers of Spain’s Golden Age, Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, and the ecu philosophes.
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Extra info for The Noble Savage: Allegory of Freedom
5. PART I: RISE AND FALL OF THE NOBLE SAVAGE Chapter 1 THE RETURN OF ULYSSES AND THE SPANISH UTOPIA The French Tradition and Peter Martyr Two works, both belonging to the genre of the American chronicles, have been claimed as sources for Montaigne's Essais: the Historia general de las Indias, written by Francisco Lopez de Gomara, and the Historia del Mondo Nuovo, by Gerolamo Benzoni. I intend to clarify two issues concerning these sources: first, to find a solution to the problem, already studied by Villey and Bataillon, of the opposing views of Montaigne and his source, and, second, to study the other first-hand source of Montaigne, which, up to now, has not been identified: Peter Martyr's De Orbe Novo.
Op. , pp. 341-365. 16 One of the last attempts to clarify this apparent contradiction has been made by Marc F. Plattner, Rousseau's State of Nature, De Kalb, Northern Illinois University Press, 1979. This author has favoured a critical approach which stands a posteriori of that dualism: "There is reason to believe that an investigation of the theoretical foundations of Rousseau's political philosophy may shed some light on the common premises that underline both modern individualism and modern collectivism," p.
To that golden past, the classical author often compares the present time, and refers to it as the "iron age," an age of decadence. After Petrarch, Italian humanism conceived classical antiquity as "plenitudo temporum," as the age of gold, compared to the decadence of later times. Peter Martyr, instead, presents classical antiquity for the first time as a bookish mirage, compared with the real experience of the Spaniards in the New World. With this comparison Peter Martyr introduces a moral consideration on his times, the "iron age," because, contrary to the American Indians who are free from money, laws, treacherous judges, deceiving books and the anxiety of an uncertain future, the character of the European civilization is highlighted by these burdens.